Lodz City

EC 1 power plant  photo. Yamile Calderon

Manufaktura Izrael Poznanski's factory in Lodz, the old linen factory in Bałuty district, neo-Romanesque, brick, built in the years 1872-1892, designed by Hilary Majewski for Israel Poznanski, the largest factory of the Kalisko-Mazowiecki industrial district, nationalized in 1945, entered in the register of monuments in the years 1971-1993, since 2006 housed a shoping center Manufaktra. EC 1 power plant The first power plant in Lodz was opened in 1907. The oldest engine room, from 1906-1907, has reinforced concrete floor-ceiling assembly, and was the first building in Poland to feature such construction. Between 1929 and 1930 the power plant was extended due to construction of a complex called the New Control Station in its western part. At the moment, works connected with the New Center of Łódź project are under way, which include conversion of the former power plant site into a cultural area. The place already houses the legendary Se-ma-for film studio, and the Fable Scheiblers' factory warehouses The area of Karol Scheiblers' former industrial complex was over the 1880s and 1890s. The Warehouses situated near the bleachery and the finishing shop were used to store textile products. Between the buildings one can still see the remains of a railway siding belonging to the Scheilber. Nowadays, the buildings house the Lodz Art Center and Fabtyka Sztuki (Factory of Art), while their industrial atmosphere fosters various artistic and cultural projects. One of the most important projects conceived and carried out by the Lodz Art Center is ''Łódź - European Capital of Culture 2016'' The Scheiblers' Power Station The power station was built in 1910 according to a design by engineer Alfred Frisch. It powered all the facilities within the industrial empire of the Scheiblers, and is a rare example of an Art Nouveau industrial building. Inside, the futures of most interest are the tiles with floral motives, geometric stained-glass windows and a coffer reinforced concrete floor-ceiling assembly. Part of the original equipment has been preserved, including an AEG turbine dated 1938. The power plant was closed in 2003 due to its lack of compliance with environment standards. A climbing wall was located here for a few years but nowadays the building is used occasionally for various cultural events. Karol W. Scheiblers' Spinning Mill in Księży Młyn The Spinning Mill built between 1870 and 1873 was the first building in Karol W.Scheibler's ''Księży Młyn'' industrial building in Lodz, and proof of Scheibler's domination. The building's architectural style refers to medieval defensive architecture, mostly due to the massive towers in the corners. At present the Building has been converted to residental functions after several years of renovation works. The Scheiblers' fire station in Księży Młyn Firefighters were present in Karol Scheiblers' industrial plants from 1878, while the present building was built in 1890s.

photo. Bjarne Bare

The fire station is dominated by a high observation tower featuring gothic elements. At the back are the former firefighters' homes and an ornametal pump. After thorough renovation, the building was converted into an office center. The original appearance was preserved thought, including the original doors of the former coach houses and an alarm gong on the tower. Scheibler Workers' Homes in Księży Młyn This estate of workers' houses was built between 1873 and 1885 and 1889. It complimented the whole industrial complex of the factory, the industrialist's residence and social and technical facilities. The oldest part consist of 3 rows of residential buildings, in between which there are out-buildings. The homes were only for the families of masters and qualified workers in the Scheibler's factory. The Scheiblers' Factory School in Księży Młyn Scheibler opened a school for his factory workers' children in 1876, and it was the first institution of this kind in Łódź. The school building is a part of Księży Młyn estate, closing the way leading from the spinning mill to the residential houses. It consist of several buildings added in consecutive years, combined into a harmonious whole and consistent with the architectural style of the complex. Ul.Piotrkowska Piotrkowska Street(in Polish:Ulica Piotrkowska), the main artery of Łódź, Poland, is one of the longest commercial thoroughfares in Europe, with a length 4.9km. It is one of the major tourist attractions of the city. It runs longitudinally in the straight line between the Liberty Square(Plac Wolności) and the Independence Square (Plac Niepodległości). From the very beginning this street was the central axis, around which the city grew bigger, and its development spontaneously gave the present shape to its centre. At first the city was mainly the highway, but later it changed into the city's showcase, the leisure and shopping centre, where the life of growing industrial agglomeration could be observed. The street deteriorated remarkably after the World War II. Only after 1990 was it revitalized step by step and changed into a kind of pedestrian precinct. It has a function similar to a market square of old towns in other cities. Nowadays the buildings, town-planning, institutions, restaurants, clubs and pubs situated next to this street, create its specific atmosphere, which is said to have a ''cult'' character reaching even outside of Łódź. Poznanski Weaving Factory (Manufaktura) http://www.manufaktura.com/EN/AboutUs/MoreAboutManufaktura/History/ObjectId/107/Default.aspx

Bergen - 'the city among the seven mountains'

photo. A. Różycki

The Old Norse forms of the name were Bergvin and Bjørgvin (and in Icelandic and Faroese the city is still called Björgvin). The first element is berg (n) or bjørg (f), which translates to mountain. The last element is vin (f), which means a new settlement where there used to be a pasture or meadow. The full meaning is then 'the meadow among the mountains'.  A suitable name: Bergen is often called 'the city among the seven mountains'.
Bergen is located in the county of Hordaland on the south-western coast of Norway. It is an important cultural hub in its region, recognized as the unofficial capital of Western Norway and sometimes also referred to as the Atlantic coast capital of Norway. The city was one of nine European cities honoured with the title of European Capital of Culture in the Millennium year.
The city of Bergen, traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardråde in 1070 AD, four years after the Viking Age ended. Modern research has, however, discovered that a trading settlement was established already during the 1020s or 1030s. It is considered to have replaced Trondheim as Norway's capital in 1217, and that Oslo became the de jure capital in 1299. Towards the end of the 13th century, Bergen became one of the Hanseatic League's most important bureau cities.
In 1428 the city was plundered by pirates on a mission for the Hanseatic League, the same who was responsible for burning down Munkeliv Abbey in 1455. In 1476, Bryggen burned down in a fire started by a drunk trader. In 1582, another fire hit the city centre and Strandsiden. In 1675, 105 buildings burned down in Øvregaten. In 1686 a new great fire hit Strandsiden, destroying 231 city blocks and 218 boathouses. The greatest fire to date happened in 1702 when 90 percent of the city was burned to ashes. In 1751, there was a great fire at Vågsbunnen. In 1756, a new fire at Strandsiden burned down 1,500 buildings, and further great fires hit Strandsiden in 1771 and 1901. In 1916, 300 buildings burned down in the city centre, and in 1955 parts of Bryggen burned down.
In 1349, the Black Death was inadvertently brought to Norway by the crew of an English ship arriving in Bergen.In the 15th century, the city was several times attacked by the Victual Brothers, and in 1429 they succeeded in burning the royal castle and much of the city. In 1536, the King of the country was able to force the Saxon merchants to become Norwegian citizens, or else to return home, heralding a decline in the Saxon influence. In 1665, the city's harbour was the site of the Battle of Vågen, between English ships on the one side and Dutch ships supported by the city's garrison on the other.
During World War II, Bergen was occupied on the first day of the German invasion on 9 April 1940, after a brief fight between German ships and the Norwegian coastal artillery. On 20 April 1944, during the German occupation, the Dutch cargo ship Voorbode anchored off the Bergenhus Fortress, loaded with over 120 tons of explosives, blew up, killing at least 150 people and damaging historic buildings. The city was subject to some Allied bombing raids, aiming at German naval installations in the harbour. Some of these caused Norwegian civilian casualties numbering about 100.




24.10.2010, 22:36 ::